Oswald Spengler wrote a classic study of what he regarded as the rise and fall of various civilizations throughout the history of mankind. The key for Spengler was that these civilizations are natural organisms and like any other natural entity, they are born, grow, decay, and eventually die. The British historian, Arnold Toynbee, wrote his Study of History after Spengler and while he agreed with Spengler on many points, he regarded civilizations as artificial, not natural. There is no reason to expect that all civilizations will necessarily die out. But in his study, he noted that sixteen of the twenty-one fully developed civilizations he identified have, in fact, died out and four of the remaining five were in their death throes. The only relatively “healthy” civilization is Western civilization.
But despite its relative healthy state, Western civilization is in the latter portion of its cycle — a series of stages that every civilization goes through — and while its roots grew strong in the rich soil provided by the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Toynbee could see the beginnings of a trend toward dissolution beginning in the Reformation with the failure of Christianity to withstand a variety of attacks from without and within. The most vital society in Western civilization was, as Toynbee saw it, the new kid on the block, India — because of its “vast literature, magnificent opulence, majestic sciences, soul touching music, awe-inspiring gods. It is already becoming clear that a chapter which has a western beginning will have to have an Indian ending if it is not to end in the self-destruction of the human race. At this supremely dangerous moment in history the only way of salvation for mankind is the Indian way.”
A healthy spirituality is essential to the well-being of any human civilization. In general, Toynbee presented the history of each civilization in terms of challenge-and-response. Civilizations arose in response to some set of challenges of extreme difficulty, when “creative minorities” devised solutions that reoriented their entire society. Challenges and responses were physical, as when the Sumerians exploited the intractable swamps of southern Iraq by organizing the Neolithic inhabitants into a society capable of carrying out large-scale irrigation projects; or social, as when the Catholic Church resolved the chaos of post-Roman Europe by enrolling the new Germanic kingdoms in a single religious community. When a civilization responds to challenges, it grows. Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to loss of control over the environment, nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority. Again, Toynbee believed that societies do not die from natural causes, but nearly always from self-inflicted wounds. And that death necessarily involves the death of the soul — the vital spirit that kept the civilization alive throughout the ages.
Whether or not we agree that India will dance on the charred remains of Western civilization (or whether we agree with Toynbee at all) we can certainly agree that the cycles that he insisted that all civilizations repeat seem to be very much in evidence today — even if we simply focus on a small part of Western civilization, namely, the United States of America. Clearly, we have lost control over our environment, given global warming, which most of us continue to deny. Further, the growth of nationalism, militarism, and the “tyranny of a despotic minority” are very much in evidence as I write this brief blog. In particular, we can see the increase of militarism today as so many political decisions seem to be directed by the military, just as we can see the immense influence the “despotic minority” of the wealthy have on the President and this Congress. But the growth of nationalism and especially militarism, along with the failure of a “creative minority” to maintain a foothold in this society, seem to have brought about what Toynbee called “an answering withdrawal of mimesis on the part of the majority” — i.e, apathy; this is especially disconcerting.
Looking at both the ancient Greek and Sumerian civilizations, Toynbee saw a movement through what the Greeks called “kouros, hubris, and haté.” These signify the growth of especially the military in those societies from a surfeit of power through excessive pride, to disaster. If he were alive today he would doubtless note a similar pattern emerging in this country, if not in the West generally. And it all seems to be hidden under the cloak of “national security.”
The part about a healthy spirituality reminds me of a professor who often talked about myth and literature. He made the point that a society must have myths to sustain it; without them, a society falls.
And we don’t seem to believe in myths any more.
I agree that our decline is at the hands of national security.
I could have written/studied for a week but still be quite lacking in material for a post to equal yours! My favorite: “…Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to loss of control over the environment, nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority.”
May the creative minorities find their voices and help pull us out of this downward spiral/auger into the ground. You are certainly making a difference! Thanks!
Thanks, Z. I sometimes wonder if these blogs do in fact make a difference, or whether I am preaching to the choir!
Perhaps Jesus wondered the same!
You are a shining example, and you’re teaching the choir how to find their voice outside of church!
Great post. I do think for the most part you are preaching to the choir, but you are arming us with good anecdotes and foundations of knowledge and context. I am hopeful there are those who do not comment and are not in the choir, but read your wise words. My concerns over our US part of western civilization decline is we need to reenergize two areas – (1) a solid and holistic education for all and (2) a vibrant middle class. What is happening in Brazil at this moment is happening because of the huge disparity in the haves and have nots. If the US continues down the path we are on and ignore those in poverty or near poverty, then the Moral Monday stuff happening in NC directed at an inept general assembly and governor may happen across our country. Thanks, BTG
I honestly don’t see the middle class making a comeback! But thanks for the kind words.
I hope we can find a way to grow it back some. Take care, BTG
With “Z” and “BTG”….their comments and their additional opinions…
[Your] Words do make a difference for those of us (myself particularly) who find it difficult to express what you so aptly convey. Choirs are good. For many obvious reasons…
There doesn’t seem to be much hope for the US, as both major political parties are cut from the same cloth as far as “national security” and warmongering goes. And many Americans are blissfully unaware of their eroding freedoms and more likely to tune in to The Bachelor or some such nonsense rather than pay attention to what is going on around them. We bring about our own demise by being so complacent. I never though about India being the next great civilization-they certainly have a rich history already. They’ve a lot of work to do on human rights, but I can definitely see Toynbee’s point.