The Old Barbarism

I have remarked on numerous occasions that we have entered the age of a New Barbarism. Civilization as we know it, with its constraints and its demands that we be aware of and even that we care about others than ourselves is being replaced by a culture that is violent, unrestrained and positively fixated on itself. But I was wrong. In reading John Carroll’s interesting book on Guilt, I came to realize that what I regard as the new barbarism is nothing more than a return of the old barbarism that was prevalent in the medieval period.  After all, it wasn’t until the early eighteenth century, while civilization was still in its early stages and people were beginning to be fully aware of others and beginning to develop a lively conscience, moving  past a time when folks ate with their hands, blew their noses on their sleeves, or relieved themselves in the streets; a growing number of books on manners reminded them that

“If you pass a person who is relieving himself you should act as if you had not seen him, as it is impolite to greet him.”

Amusing indeed, but at the same time it gives us a sense of what things were like before we slowly but surely became “civilized.”  In England, for example, between the years 1200 and 1530 we find the following features:

“Conscience was in a primitive state. . . The common man’s imagination was fed with a kaleidoscope of ghosts, signs, specters, apparitions — of angels, devils, shades of the dead, and other countless forms that the Church managed to weave into its philosophy.”

Sound familiar? Has the entertainment industry become our church? What about this: ”

“Medieval culture was visual and tactile. Pictoral expression far surpassed the intellectual or literary. The popular stories were picturesque. . . The prominant role that magic played in the Middle Ages [created problems for the Protestant Church] that removed magic from Christian ritual without countering the belief in magic. . . . medieval man’s experience had the directness and absoluteness of the pleasure and pain of child life. . . As the visual was preferred over the literary, so the visible and public were preferred to the private.”

As in the entertainment industry once again, or, perhaps, social media? Perhaps this:

“The disposition of medieval man was that of a delinquent. It was violent and impulsive, without capacity for restraint or moderation. Tempestuous uninhibited passion was never far from the surface. . . Affection seems to have been scarce; the dominant emotions of the time were rather those of impotent fear and reflex violence.”

I could go on, but you get the idea. It is too much to see a precise parallel — as some have tried to do with contemporary civilization and the fall of the Roman Empire. But the similarities to the medieval period are striking as we cover ourselves with tattoos and piercings, gobble up entertainment, fixate on our hand-held electronic devices, seek violent solutions to complex social problems, purchase personal weapons at an alarming rate, take innumerable pictures of ourselves (and what we are about to eat), crave violent games and movies. The Harry Potter craze seems to echo the comments Carroll makes about the “kaleidoscope of ghosts . . ” that was common in the medieval period. In a word, there are signs that we are in danger of becoming increasingly barbaric as we turn our backs on civil discourse and the virtue of restraint, on the richness and treasure that is (was?) Western Civilization.

Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies showed us a group of English school boys stranded on an island after their plane crashed. Within a few days the thin veneer of civilization wore off and we began to see the savage nature of the animals beneath — with a few exceptions. Law and morality were forgotten and chaos, in the guise of complete freedom, placed the lives of each of those boys at risk. This was fiction, but it was based on sound observation and compelling arguments by psychologists such as Sigmund Freud who told us that beyond the pleasure principle there lies a core of festering aggression within each of us. And our history provides us with multiple examples of this undeniable fact, as Carroll points out. During the medieval period the thin veneer of civilization was almost transparent and it took centuries of struggle for humans to begin to act like humans, to care for one another, acquire manners, and to put law above violence, to become “civilized.”

The veneer gradually thickened but today we seem determined to scratch it off as too inhibiting. However, we should be aware of what lives beneath that veneer; we are seeing growing numbers of examples of that inner core of aggression that Freud spoke about. From an uncivilized president and his legions of agitated supporters to the hordes of people buying guns, to the shouting that has replaced civil discourse, to the gradual disappearance of good manners, to the attacks on reason and science, we see all around us signs of that core of “tempestuous, uninhibited” aggression. We must be very careful not to wear off entirely that veneer of civilization since that way lies the old barbarism, a part of ourselves that we always carry with us and which we really don’t want to expose for all to see.


11 thoughts on “The Old Barbarism

  1. Fascinating post, Hugh. It is downright scary when you consider the clear signs of a return to barbarism. After spending 35 years in education, I saw all of this first-hand as we educators struggled with students who felt entitled to flout regulations that didn’t suit them and who were backed by permissive and entitled parents. Fortunately, the majority of students accepted the rule of law and they were supported by parents who played an active role in their socialization. For the majority, the most effective deterrent I had was the threat to phone home.

    • Well said. It’s not clear whether a majority of folks in the West have started to regress. But a great many have. Perhaps at some point someone will calculate the exact number! But there is definitely a trend and it is what disturbs me most — especially since those who lead the attack on Western Civilization are growing numbers of college and university faculty!

      • It occurs to me that the present tend towards barbarism among the educated elite may have a lot to do with the disillusionment people suffer because of the corruption of elected officials. Why vote? Nothing changes when politicians ignore the people and the best interest of the nation in order to serve their financial backers.

      • I think the problem among the so-called elite amounts to nothing less than “nihilism” — or at least egoistic presumption. They have nothing to believe in and are convinced they know what has caused most, if not all, of the world’s problems: Western Civilization.

  2. Hugh, the phrase “tempestuous, uninhibited aggression” sounds apt. Everyone feels aggrieved and must vent. Venting online is too easy, so it becomes less filtered. It puts an extra burden on those who want civil discourse, but we must walk the talk.

    I also liked your commebt about entertainment being the new religion. The corrolary is religion is becoming entertainment to get fannies in seats. Keith

      • Hugh, well said. The underlying problem is wealth creation and maintenance. Education costs far too much which drives the loan debt. Medicine creates more tests and hospital stays to make more money. Religion based on prosperity rather piety builds a nice portfolio for its leaders. Keith

  3. No matter who one meets, or no matter with whom one breaks bread, there is a certainty that one’s guest harbors Barbarism, no matter how well they may conceal it. Civilization and Culture is a thin veneer that the accomplished wear in order to conceal their base humanity, all told. Why so? Because men find it convenient to condemn in others what is most true about themselves, ever. The claim of Barbarism is nothing more than a Psychological Projection.

    Such are these men, haunted with the shame of hypocrites, bedeviled by the same (guilt).

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